In the old days, when electricity was cheap and it was difficult to buy heaters, they were made from nichrome spirals, which were wound on ceramic bases. Simple devices were called "goats". They consumed huge amounts of electricity and were flammable. Some copies of "goats" have survived to this day, and in the summary of incidents, no, no, and there will be a message that a fire has happened somewhere due to such heating. Now there is no need for homemade products. For a reasonable amount, you can buy a pretty decent heating, economical and safe heater.
Oil heaters are considered one of the safest heaters. In their sealed case, filled with machine (transformer or similar) oil, there are electric heating elements (tubular electric heaters). Many of the modern models of oil heaters are equipped with thermostats that allow you to set the heating intensity. The more expensive ones have programmable timers and an LCD display. The fans built into some models can also increase the heating rate of the room.
The casing of oil heaters consists of sections in the form of a radiator. The more sections, the greater the surface area of the heater, and hence its efficiency. The shape of the sections is different for different models. The most modern models have a complex sectional shape, due to which the surface area from which heat transfer occurs becomes larger without significantly increasing the dimensions of the device.
All the listed advantages of oil heaters, as well as the simplicity of design, noiselessness and relatively low price (from 2,000 to 5,000 rubles) have made them very popular. The disadvantages of these devices include the fact that a cold room is heated with their help to comfortable temperatures not too quickly: 20, 30 minutes and longer. In addition, some models are not stable enough, and they weigh a lot. Therefore, in a room where an oil heater is operating, children and animals should not be left unattended under any circumstances.
It is recommended to store oil heaters in an upright position. And if the device has been lying on its side for some time (for example, during transportation), before turning it on, you need to wait 10-15 minutes for the oil to flow into the lower part of the radiator and completely cover the heating elements.
Fan heaters are capable of producing heat faster. They are also the cheapest of all types of heaters. As the name implies, these devices, in addition to the heating element, are equipped with a fan that blows out warm air. There are powerful models that can both heat and ventilate large offices and warehouses.
Household fan heaters are convenient because they are compact and easy to operate. Their quality and price are determined by the type of heating element, which can be spiral, heating element and ceramic.
Spiral heating elements are made of thin nichrome wire. Their main drawback is the very high heating temperature. A heated nichrome spiral is in direct contact with air; household dust that gets on it burns out, emitting an unpleasant odor and harmful substances.
The air intake opening of the coil heater must not be blocked by any objects and must be monitored very carefully. For example, if a curtain covers the heater with an accidental draft, the appliance may burn out and even cause a fire.
Heating element heaters instead of a spiral are equipped with a metal tube, inside which there is a heating element made of graphite or wire. The entire free space in the tube is filled with quartz sand, which has a high thermal conductivity. They are safer than spiral ones, but they cost a little more - from 3000 to 5000 rubles.
Fan heaters with a sintered heating element are considered the most environmentally friendly and safe. Some models are equipped with sensors that are triggered when tilted to either side and turn off the device, thereby preventing the risk of fire.
The range of prices for ceramic heaters is from 2,000 to 8,000 rubles.
Convectors appeared on the Russian market a decade ago. Devices in a rectangular flat case are most often hung on the wall. They do not take up much space, moreover, you can always choose a model in a color that is in harmony with the interior of the room.
Heating with an electric convector is quick and silent, cold air naturally enters the heating elements from below through the intake grill. warming up, it rises and returns to the room through the upper blinds. Since the maximum temperature of the heating element of the convector (as a rule, it is a heating element) does not exceed 55-60 ° C, the device is fireproof, it can be left switched on in the house even during long absences, maintaining the thermal regime in the room set using the electronic controller. Protect a country house from cold weather between weekends
operating temperature, for example, plus 5 ° C, and once you enter the house, quickly warm it up with the help of a convector, it became easy, therefore, Russian consumers appreciated these devices at their true worth.
There are many different models of convectors on our market - both imported and domestic. They differ from each other in size, heat output, the number of operating modes and different devices such as touch panels and remote control panels. Prices for these models range from 3,000 to 7,000 rubles.
Heat from the ceiling
Another type of heaters is infrared. In fact, they are sources of directional infrared (thermal) radiation that is not absorbed by air, but heats directly the objects and objects they hit. The air heats up already from them. For example, if the heater is fixed to the ceiling - and this is how models designed for heating housing are most often installed - then first the lower part of the room heats up, and then the warm air rises up, which is really very comfortable. An infrared heater is the only type of device that allows zone and spot heating (for example, a work or sleeping place) without worrying about the temperature in the rest of the room. This allows significant energy savings. The devices can even be used outdoors. Having settled down in the "illumination" zone of such a heat lamp, a person will feel quite comfortable even in cool weather.
Manufacturers claim that infrared heaters are not afraid of moisture, that they do not burn dust, do not dry the air, and they consume much less electricity in comparison with other heaters of the same power.
They also have their disadvantages. Since the operating temperature of the heating element of an infrared heater is quite high - from 300 to 700 ° C, they should be installed at a strictly defined distance from the heated objects (2-3 m), completely excluding the possibility of physical contact with the device, and in the room where it is used, there should be no flammable objects (paper, shavings, wool).
There are models of both foreign and Russian manufacturers on sale, costing from 2500 to 6000 rubles.
A separate niche among heaters is occupied by electric fireplaces with the visual effect of "living fire". In fact, most often under the "mask" of an electric fireplace is an ordinary fan heater, to which a moving picture of the flame has been added. Such models, as a rule, cost from 4,000 to 6,000 rubles.
An electric fireplace built into the wall is not only a high-quality, sufficiently powerful heater, but also an element of room decor. Therefore, the cost of the models is 10,000-40,000 rubles and more.
Non-electrical heat sources
All of these types of heaters are powered from the electrical network. And if the heating network fails and the electricity supply is interrupted at the same time? Or is there no electricity at all on your plots yet? It is not at all necessary to purchase a stove and stock up on firewood for the winter; you can also find a more modern solution, for example, purchase a gas convector with a cast-iron heat exchanger. Such gas appliances are quite reliable and durable. The gas is burned in them in a closed combustion chamber. Combustion air is supplied from the street, and all combustion products are also removed there. In the absence of a flame, a special sensor automatically cuts off the gas supply.
In addition to gas convectors, there are also infrared heaters on sale that run on diesel fuel or LPG.
Some models of industrial fan heaters ("heat guns") can run on diesel fuel, LPG, kerosene or waste oil. Most often they are used for heating non-residential premises or accelerated drying of renovated premises.
If you have purchased a sufficiently powerful heater, do not forget that the load on the power grid increases when it is turned on. Weak wiring may not be able to withstand such a load. To connect such devices, you must use only high-quality wires, extension cords and sockets.
One final important warning: any type of heater is not designed to dry clothes. The only exceptions are models equipped with special dryers.